Biology

http://wp.stolaf.edu/biology/

Chair, 2014-15: Jean Porterfield, evolutionary genetics, molecular ecology

Faculty, 2014-15: Diane Angell, animal ecology, conservation and environmental health; Lisa Bowers, microbiology, molecular biology, synthetic biology, genetics; Alyson Center, plant evolutionary ecology, ecophysiology, quantitative genetics; Eric Cole, developmental biology, cell biology and genetics, microscopy; Kevin Crisp, neurobiology, electrophysiology, human anatomy and physiology; Jay Demas, developmental neurobiology, biophysics, neurophysiology; Steven Freedberg, bioinformatics, evolutionary ecology; John Giannini, plant physiology, membrane transport, deer migration, wildflowers; Ted Johnson, microbiology, aging, cancer and immunity (spring only); Kim Kandl, molecular biology and genetics, cytoskeleton function in yeast (on leave fall semester); Laura Listenberger, molecular cell biology, biochemistry, lipid storage in mammalian cells; Emily Mohl, evolutionary ecology, plant-insect interactions, ecological risk assessment, science education; John Schade, biology, environmental studies, biogeochemistry, ecology (on leave); Kathleen Shea, plant evolutionary ecology, restoration ecology, conservation; Nicole Shirkey-Son, neurobiology, human biology, cell biology, microscopy; Mike Swift, aquatic ecology, physiological ecology, toxicology; Charles Umbanhowar Jr., botany/ecology, disturbance ecology of grasslands, paleoecology; David Van Wylen, physiology, neurobiology, sustainability program/space design in science buildings (on leave Interim and spring semester); Anne Walter, cell and animal physiology, membrane biophysics, neuroscience, biomathematics, global health; Kyle Whittinghill, biogeochemistry, ecosystem ecology

From the molecules that are the building blocks of life to the complex interactions between living organisms and their environments, biology continues to fascinate the human mind. The Biology Department offers a diverse array of courses and experiences that present fundamental biological principles and processes within the context of being informed, responsible, and compassionate citizens. It provides a broad range of learning opportunities through its course offerings, laboratories, independent study/research, internships and off-campus study programs at sites including South India, the desert southwest, Australia, Bahamas, Central and South America, and Northern Minnesota. Woven into all learning opportunities are hands-on experiences with modern equipment that stimulate critical and independent thinking.

For science majors, the Biology Department offers an exciting slate of challenging and rewarding courses. For the less science-oriented student, it seeks to stimulate natural curiosity about how our bodies work and how humans interact with their surroundings by providing several courses designed primarily for non-science majors. These courses, which satisfy the natural sciences (SED, IST) requirements of the general education curriculum, focus on current biological issues and general interest topics in biology.

OVERVIEW OF THE MAJOR

The ever-broadening nature of biology requires diversely-trained and inquisitive biologists. The biology major has the dual mission of introducing students to the information and technological tools of various disciplines of biology while instilling the confidence to critically assess a biological phenomenon and to design and carry out an appropriate research program. To that end, the biology major provides the necessary content and instrument training while students practice the art of scientific inquiry. Opportunities for interdisciplinary work abound. Biology majors are encouraged to participate in research with faculty, off-campus programs in biology, in departmental seminars and social activities.

INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES FOR THE MAJOR

general REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MAJOR

All students majoring in biology complete eight biology courses and a year of chemistry (Chemistry 121, 123, 126; or Chemistry 125, 126; or Chemistry/Biology 125, 126). Students in the class of 2017 and beyond will complete the current major, while students in the classes of 2015 and 2016 have the option of completing either the current major or the previous major; requirements for both majors are provided below.

Major Requirements as of April 2013
(open to students in the classes of 2015 and 2016; required for biology majors starting with the class of 2017)

All students majoring in biology complete eight biology courses and a year of chemistry (Chemistry 121, 123, 126; or Chemistry 125, 126; or Chemistry/Biology 125, 126). The eight required biology courses include a foundation course, at least one course from each of four core categories, and at least one level III biology course. Two additional courses are elective courses.

Foundation Course

The biology major begins with Biology 150: Evolutionary Foundations of Biodiversity. This course explores the evolutionary and genetic foundations of life's biodiversity, and establishes the laboratory and scientific communication skills upon which subsequent courses build. Students planning to major in biology should take this foundation course first; students who decide to switch to a biology major should take this foundation course at the time of deciding their major.

Core Categories

Students must take one course from each of the four core categories. Please consult the course descriptions for which courses count towards each course category.

  1. Ecology. Ecology is the study of the interactions between organisms and their environments. These interactions are studied at levels of biological organization from individuals to populations, communities, ecosystems, landscapes, and the entire biosphere. Through ecology, students can better understand interconnections in the natural world, and become more aware of their role in sustaining the biodiversity and ecosystem services that benefit all life on earth.

  2. Cell Biology. Cells are the basic units of life, and understanding the structure and function of cells, and how they are studied, is central to understanding modern biology. Through a course in this category, students will obtain a comprehensive overview of cellular structure and function, for example cellular compartments, macromolecular structures, and life processes such as energy and material flux, cell division, and control mechanisms.

  3. Genetics. Genetics examines relationships between genotype and phenotype in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms from classical and molecular perspectives. Through a course in this category, students will explore gene structure, inheritance, and expression. Through genetics, students discover the ways in which the field of genetics is interdisciplinary, research-based, and relevant to the world today.

  4. Comparative Organismal Biology. Courses in this category study life at the tissue, organ system, and individual levels of organization. Students will broaden their knowledge of a group of organisms (e.g., plants) or of a universal biological phenomenon (e.g., reproduction). Courses in this category approach the content through comparisons across multiple taxa.

Level III Biology Course

Every biology major takes at least one level III course in the department. Our level III course offerings vary greatly in topic and in type of student work, yet they all share aspects such that each student has an opportunity to experience sophisticated, independent, iterative work in biology. Students in a directed research course will practice sophistication in experimental design and practice, independence in their investigation, and iterative toubleshooting. Students in a non-laboratory investigative course will practice sophistication in evaluating the primary literature, as well as independence in assembling and synthesizing ideas from that literature. Not all level III biology courses meet this requirement. For example, Biology 394 (internships credit) does not count toward the biology major, and thus this requirement. Students should consult catalog descriptions for each level III course.

Elective Courses

Students complete their biology major with two elective courses. Any biology course can count as an elective with the following exceptions:

  • Only one independent study (Biology 298) and one independent research (Biology 396 or Biology 398) can count toward the major.
  • Internships (Biology 294 or 394) do not count toward the major. Biology 294 and 394 can only be taken P/N.

In addition to courses designated as biology, the following courses can count as biology electives:

  • Chemistry 379: Biochemistry I
  • Neuroscience 239: Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Psychology 238: Biopsychology
  • other courses as approved by petition (including a rationale that clearly explains proposed course's place in the student's biology major) to the department.

General Considerations for the Major

  • No more than two level I biology courses, including Biology 150, and AP or IB credit may count toward the major.
  • Of the six courses counting toward the major that must be graded C or above, at least four must be at level II or III.
  • Students wishing to count for the major a course taken abroad or at another institution must consult with the chair for approval before taking the course.
  • While programs leading to graduate work are planned on an individual basis, most programs require students to have completed two or more quantitative courses (mathematics, statistics, or computer science), two courses in physics, and at least four courses in chemistry. Students intending to enter graduate or professional school are encouraged to consult with the biology faculty to plan a course of study appropriate for the postgraduate program.
  • Students pursuing a secondary school science education teaching license with a life science speciality should consider completing the biology major including Biology 123 or 243 as one of their electives. Additional courses are required as specified by the Education Department. Interested students should consult faculty in the Education Department.
  • All of the level II and III courses in biology have prerequisites. Please consult the course descriptions below for this information.

PREVIOUS Major Requirements (open to students in the classes of 2015 and 2016)

For students in the class of 2016 or earlier electing to complete the previous major, the eight biology courses must include: four core courses that emphasize cell/molecular biology (Biology 125 or Chemistry/Biology 125-127), biodiversity and evolution (Biology 126), genetics (Biology 233), and ecology (Biology 261); one course that focuses on a group of multicellular organisms (Biology 242, 247, 248, 251, 252, 266, or 275); one level III biology course; and two elective biology courses. The integrated chemistry-biology sequence (Chemistry/Biology 125, 126, 227) may be taken in lieu of Biology 125, and Chemistry 125 and 126. Only one independent study (Biology 298) or independent research (Biology 396 or Biology 398) can count toward the major; internships (Biology 294 or 394) do not count toward the major. Biology 294 and 394 can only be taken P/N. Of the six courses counting toward the major that must be graded C or above, at least four must be at level II or III.

In addition to courses designated as biology, the following courses can count as biology electives:

Chemistry 379: Biochemistry I
Exercise Science 375: Physiology of Exercise
Neuroscience 239: Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience or Psychology 238: Biopsychology

or other courses as approved by petition to the department. For two non-biology courses to count, they must be from different departments or programs. No more than three level I biology courses, including Biology 125 and 126, and Chemistry/Biology 127, may count toward the major. Only Biology Department courses (including independent research) may count toward the level III requirement.

DISTINCTION

The Biology Department honors a limited number of graduating majors with distinction in biology. In early fall, eligible biology seniors may apply for distinction. Evaluation of candidates occurs in the spring semester. More information is available on the Biology website at http://wp.stolaf.edu/biology/distinction/

SPECIAL PROGRAMS

Research opportunities are central to the teaching mission of the Biology Department. In addition to independent study, independent research, and project-based courses (Biology 298, 398, 396), each summer the Biology Department awards several paid research positions to students interested in working with faculty on current research projects. These ten-week positions offer excellent opportunities in both lab and field research. Biology 291: Topics - Research is a 0.25 credit opportunity for a journal club or other exploratory course offered at student request and the professor's discretion. Biology 375: Advanced Supplemental Research is a 0.25 credit course option for students completing a research project or piloting a new project.

The Biology Department offers many opportunities for off-campus study. Two semester-long programs, Biology in South India (offered every fall semester) and Environmental Science in Australia (usually offered alternating spring semesters), are of particular interest to biology students. Other semester/summer programs are available through affiliated institutions or programs (e.g., ACM Oak Ridge Science Semester, ACM Tropical Field Research, Coe College Wilderness Field Station, Denmark’s International Studies Program). In addition, each Interim several off-campus biology courses are offered; see courses marked "off campus" or "abroad" in the course list below. Students interested in off-campus biology courses should consult biology faculty or the Office of International and Off-Campus Studies.

Several concentrations are offered that closely relate to the Biology Department: biomolecular science, environmental studies, mathematical biology, neuroscience, and statistics. Students interested in these concentrations should consult the descriptions in this catalog or the program director.

COURSES

110 Supplemental Biology

This biology course emphasizes learning strategies and critical thinking skills as applied to the curriculum of Biology 150. Objectives of the course are met through additional readings, problem sets, brief written assignments, introduction of discipline-specific writing styles, projects (including individual and/or group oral presentation), and library research. Assignments include new content that complements introductory biology. Offered annually. Prerequisites: concurrent enrollment in BIO 150 and permission of instructor.

121 Biological Science: Issues in Biology

This course explores contemporary biological issues related to health and the environment, with the goal of fostering informed citizens prepared for current biological debates. Students learn the relevant biological principles in lecture and lab followed by appropriate lab or field research. Specific topics vary from year to year and may include emerging diseases, cardiovascular health, genetics, specific groups of organisms, behavior, and environmental dynamics. The course includes lectures plus one two-hour laboratory per week.

123 Human Biology

This course focuses on the wonderous actions of the human body. Students learn how several vital body functions occur subconsciously, such as the rhythmic beating of the heart or the digestion of nutrients after a meal. Topics include how the brain works, how muscles contract, and how kidneys produce urine, and the remarkable biology associated with reproduction. Students use this understanding to elucidate diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. Students attend class plus one two-hour laboratory per week. Offered annually.

124 The Biology of Women

Issues of women's biology including views of the evolving female and biological determinism are examined. Core material covers anatomy, development, the biological basis of gender, reproduction, sexual response, the menstrual cycle and aging, and aspects of women's health such as eating disorders, cancers, and hormonal treatments. Students participate in significant amounts of group work and oral presentation. The course is open to both men and women. Offered during Interim. Counts toward women's and gender studies major and concentration.

Integrated Chem/Bio I 125 : Chemical Concepts with Biological Applications

This course introduces chemical concepts that are important for students pursuing a study of chemistry or biology. Topics include atomic structure, the periodic table, bonding interactions within and between particles, water and its solutions, biological membranes, chemical reaction types, chemical stoichiometry, equilibrium systems, acids and bases, introduction to protein structure. Examples are often pulled from the realm of biological molecules and processes. Students attend three classes and one three-hour laboratory each week. Prerequisites: high school biology, chemistry and physics. Placement via online placement exam is required. Concurrent registration in Mathematics 120 or 121 is recommended. Offered annually in the fall semester.

Integrated Chem/Bio II 126: Thermodynamics and Kinetics with Bio Relevance

This course introduces physical chemistry with an emphasis on thermodynamics and kinetics of biologically relevant systems. Topics include probability as the driving force for chemical reactions; the relationship between chemical bonding energetics, entropy, and equilibria; oxidation-reduction reactions and electrochemistry; and rates of reactions, including enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Laboratory experiments and activities illustrate lecture topics and introduce new concepts. Prerequisites: Chemistry/Biology 125 and Mathematics 120 or 121. Offered during Interim.

127 Genetics and Society

In this course, designed as an introduction to genetics and molecular biology for non-biology majors, students learn about molecular biology techniques and the use of molecular biology in medicine, forensics and agriculture. Students discuss topics such as human genetic diseases, mutations, DNA cloning, DNA fingerprinting, eugenics, gene therapy, stem cell research, and genetic privacy. Each issue is addressed on scientific and ethical levels. Offered during Interim.

128 Water: Precious, Precarious, & Problematic

Water is a beautifully simple molecule that is essential to survival (precious). Rivers have run dry, aquifers are overdrawn, and pollution is widespread (precarious). Much of the world lacks access to safe drinking water or water for basic sanitation, and water wars have been predicted (problematic). Students examine water from a scientific perspective - chemical, physiological, ecological - and delve into the political, economic, and societal implications of water. Offered occasionally during Interim.

130 Bodies and Biomes in Arizona (off campus)

What makes a human healthy? What makes an environment healthy? This course explores these questions in the Sonoran Desert and diverse nearby habitats. Students carry out labs and exercises on physiological challenges to and acclimation of the human body, and field research projects on ecology and adaptations of a plant or animal group of their choice. They synthesize these different activities through academic exploration of factors that influence and connect both human physiology and ecological adaption. Data for the field research projects is gathered while utilizing a wide variety of physical techniques, such as hiking, rock climbing, and caving. Offered occasionally during Interim. Not open to first-year students. Counts toward biology major.

135 Thinking and Doing Biology

Why do biologists do what they do? How is biology actually done? Students investigate the reasons biological science is done the way it is today. Students have the opportunity to design and perform their own experiments while learning the process of scientific investigation. Designed primarily for non-majors. Offered during Interim.

143 Human Anatomy and Physiology: Cells and Tissues

The study of the anatomy and physiology of the human body is founded on a thorough understanding of the structure and function of cells and tissues. Students attend lectures plus one 3-hour lab per week. Nursing and exercise science majors may pre-register for this course. This course may not be taken after completion of BIO 125, CH/BI 227, or BIO 227, any of which serve as a prerequisite for BIO 243: Human Anatomy and Physiology. Offered in the fall semester.

150 Evolutionary Foundations of Biodiversity

This course is the gateway for the biology major, guiding students as they develop the context, skills, and modern framework on which to continue their study of biology. Students explore the history, evolution, and diversity of life in the context of genetics and comparative genomics. The laboratory emphasizes question-asking, problem-solving, and exploring biodiversity, and students have multiple opportunities to practice and communicate their science. Students attend lectures plus one 3-hour laboratory/discussion per week. Offered each semester.

Biology/Environmental Studies 226: Conservation Biology

Conservation biology focuses on the study of biological diversity. Students examine why we should be concerned about the number and types of species on earth, what factors threaten the survival of species and how we can conserve them. Using principles of ecology and evolution, with input from other disciplines, students gain a better understanding of the impact of humans on biodiversity and the importance of responsible environmental decision-making. Offered annually.

227 Cell Biology

This course provides a comprehensive overview of cellular structure and function including cellular compartments, macromolecular structures, and life processes such as energy and material flux, cell division, and control mechanisms. Students learn current and/or historical evidence and methodology (e.g., microscopy, isolation procedures, and probes). Laboratory experiences provide opportunities for qualitative and quantitative observations of cellular structure and function. Students place their work in the context of current research through examination of relevant literature and formal presentations. Prerequisites: CHEM 125 or CHEM 121/CHEM 123 or CH/BI 125; BIO 150 is strongly preferred. Offered each semester. Counts toward biomolecular science concentration (for students through class of 2016).

Integrated Chem/Bio III 227: Molecular and Cellular Biology

This course builds on the principles learned in Chemistry/Biology 125/126 and explores how chemistry informs major principles of cellular and molecular biology. Topics include cell structure, metabolism, movement, signaling, and division. The course emphasizes problem-solving, quantitative reasoning, the scientific method, and scientific writing through lectures, discussions, readings, writing assignments, and lab work. Students attend three classes and one three-hour laboratory each week. Prerequisite: Chemistry/Biology 126. Counts toward "Cell Biology" core category. Offered annually in the spring semester.

Biology/Environmental Studies 228: Environmental Health

Human health is affected by the biological environment, a teeming world of parasites and diseases, and the physical environment -- the water, air, and landscapes that we inhabit. Human interactions with the environment have changed rapidly, as human populations grow, travel increases, and ecosystems are altered. This course touches upon traditional environmental topics such as air and water quality, and integrates newer public health challenges such as emerging diseases and food-borne illnesses. Prerequisite: an introductory science course.

231 Microbiology

Microbiology examines the morphology, composition, metabolism, and genetics of microorganisms with emphasis on bacteria and viruses. Students examine the dynamic impact of microbes on humans, the immune response, and the role of microbes in the environment. Students attend lectures plus one three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisites: BIO 143 or BIO 150, and one Chemistry course. Offered annually.

233 Intermediate Genetics

Genetics examines relationships between genotype and phenotype in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms from classical and molecular perspectives. Lectures in this core course cover ideas and technologies contributing to understanding mechanisms of gene transmission and regulation. Laboratories utilize model organisms to investigate classical and molecular modes of inheritance. Students attend lectures plus one three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisites: BIO 150, and CHEM 125 or CHEM 121/CHEM 123 or CH/BI 125; or BIO 125 and CHEM 125 or CHEM 121/CHEM 123 or CH/BI 125. Counts as "genetics" core category. Offered each semester. Counts toward neuroscience concentration.

242 Vertebrate Biology

Students focus on the natural history of Upper Midwest vertebrates and phylogenetic, morphological, and functional relationships of these animals. Laboratories include identification, and morphology. During field trips, students document bird migrations, amphibian chorusing, and other animal activities. Independent projects explore topics ranging from bluebird nesting behavior to thermal conductivity and insulation in animals. Students attend lectures plus one three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisites: BIO 150 or BIO 126. Counts as "comparative organismal biology" core category.

243 Human Anatomy and Physiology: Organs and Organ Systems

Students journey toward greater understanding of the human body through an integrated study of the structure of the body (anatomy) and how organs such as the brain, heart, and kidney perform their remarkable functions (physiology). The course is designed primarily for students intending careers in the health sciences. Students attend lectures plus one three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisite: BIO 143, or BIO 150 and BIO 227, or BIO 125, or CH/BI 227. Offered annually. Counts towards exercise science major and neuroscience concentration.

247 Animal Physiology

How do animals do what they need to do to survive in all sorts of environments? Why are others able to exist in only very particular conditions? These are the sorts of questions students explore as they navigate the basic systems that provide circulation, ventilation, movement, digestion, and waste removal. Students look at how these processes are coordinated by the nervous and endocrine systems and how they vary across the animal kingdom to help organisms survive in dry, hot deserts, in dark, deep oceans, and places in between. In the weekly three-hour lab, they conduct quantitative physiological measurements to assess functions such as temperature control, respiration rates, and salt and water balance. Prerequisites: BIO 150 and BIO 227 or CH/BI 227 recommeded . Counts as "comparative organismal biology" core category. Counts toward neuroscience concentration (for students through class of 2016).

248 Invertebrate Biology

This course traces the path of invertebrate evolution from single-celled protozoans to the most primitive chordates. Emphasis is placed upon major breakthroughs in design that enable organisms to exploit new ecological habitats. Laboratories are designed to introduce students to the major invertebrate groups via observation of living animals and through dissection. Students attend lectures plus one three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisites: BIO 150 or BIO 126. Offered alternate years. Counts as "comparative organismal biology" core category. Counts toward neuroscience concentration.

251 Plant Physiology

This course begins with an in-depth look at a plant cell and its physiology, followed by a discussion of whole plant physiology as it relates to cellular functions. Students attend lectures plus one three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisites: Bio 150 or BIO 126, and CHEM 125 and CHEM 126. BIO 227 or CH/BI 227 recommended. Counts as "comparative organismal biology" core category.

252 Plant Morphology

Plants are a diverse and important group of organisms. This course considers their evolution, emphasizing the morphology and anatomy of flowering plants. Students learn about basic techniques of data collection and analysis to investigate plant evolution: identifying plants, dissecting and staining plant structures, and using computer-based taxonomic statistics programs. Students attend lectures plus one three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisites: BIO 150 or BIO 126. Counts as "comparative organismal biology" core category.

261 Ecological Principles

Ecology focuses on the study of the interrelationships that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms. This core course examines organism-environment interactions and the study of populations, communities and ecosystems. Consideration is given to use of ecological studies in ecosystem management. Students attend lectures plus one three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisites: BIO 150 or BIO 126. Counts as "ecology" core category. Offered each semester. Counts toward environmental studies major (all tracks) and concentration.

266 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy

What happened to the dinosaurs? Can some human congenital heart defects be explained by reference to cardiovascular systems of diving turtles? Examining the origin and evolution of vertebrates, comparing morphology across vertebrate taxa and examining selective factors leading to modern forms is of value to health science students, graduate studies in biology, and people who like dinosaurs. Students attend lectures plus one three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisites: BIO 150 or BIO 126. Counts as "comparative organismal biology" core category.

275 Biology of Reproduction

The ability to reproduce is one of the key features of a living organism. Studying the biology of reproduction requires a synthesis of information and concepts from a wide range of fields within biology. This course addresses reproduction at the genetic, organismal, and population levels. Laboratory work adds a valuable investigative component to the course, and social/psychological issues are addresssed throughout. Prerequisites: BIO 150 or BIO 126, or permission of instructor. Counts as "comparative organismal biology" core category. Counts toward women's and gender studies major and concentration if approved by petition.

282 Desert Biology (off-campus)

Following introductory lectures on campus, the class travels on extended field trips to desert locations in Arizona and adjacent states. Students examine interrelationships of desert plants and animals, their adaptations to the harsh desert environment, and the role of primitive and modern humans in this ecosystem. Prerequisite: BIO 150 or BIO 126 or permission of instructor. Offered during Interim.

284 Peruvian Medical Experience (abroad)

This course is a service/learning experience. Week one is spent on campus learning basic clinical techniques, examining emerging disease, and studying existing health care issues. Students spend three weeks in Cuzco, Peru, assessing patient needs in a public hospital, a homeless shelter, orphanages, and a small village. Week four involves discussion and writing reflective journals. Prerequisites: BIO 150 or BIO 126 or BIO 231, and BIO 291. Apply through the Office of International and Off-Campus Studies. Offered during Interim (for students through class of 2016).

Biology/Environmental Studies 286: Tropical Ecology in Costa Rica (abroad)

This course offers students the opportunity to study first-hand the most diverse ecosystems on earth. In this field-oriented course students explore lowland rain forest, montane forest, dry forest, and coastal and agricultural ecosystems through projects and field trips. Students read and discuss texts and primary literature specific to ecology, evolution, conservation, and agricultural practices of each area, and keep reflective journals. Prerequisite: one science course. Offered in alternate years during Interim.

287 Island Biology in the Bahamas (abroad)

Intensive study of the biology that created the Bahamas and that now constitutes the living structure of these islands. Staying at the Gerace Research Center provides access to a diversity of marine and terrestrial habitats including coral reefs, seagrass beds, mangrove forests, hypersaline ponds, limestone caverns, and the "blue-holes" that connect inland waterways to the sea. The Gerace Research Center is located on San Salvador Island. Counts toward major: Biology. Prerequisite: BIO 150, or BIO 126, or permission of instructor. Offered during Interim.

288 Equatorial Biology (abroad)

This course offers intensive field-biology experiences within three equatorial New World environments: the Amazon rainforest, the Andes cloud forests, and the Galapagos Islands. Students compare the rich biodiversity, the adaptations and natural history of species, and the influence of human impact on these areas. Preparation for class requires readings from texts and primary literature concerning ecological and environmental issues specific to each of these regions. Based in Quito, the three field expeditions alternate with home-based rest days allowing for reflective writing in journals, assimilation, and discussion. Prerequisite: BIO 150, or BIO 126, or permission of instructor. Offered during Interim.

291 Topics in Biological Research (0.25)

For science majors, learning to read the primary literature and other professional sources is an important transition from classroom learning to post-graduate endeavors. Students read, present, and discuss scientific literature in a field selected by participating faculty. The goal is to garner sufficient expertise to allow critical analysis of the particular field. Requires permission of instructor. May be repeated if topics are different.

294 Internship

Internships are designed to provide career-testing opportunities. Students interested in an internship should consult with the Piper Center for Vocation and Career, enlist a faculty supervisor, and complete an internship application. Internships do not count toward the biology major requirements.

298 Independent Study

Independent study allows students to study in an area not covered in the regular biology course offerings. The student undertakes substantial independent study in a defined biological field, meets regularly with faculty supervisor, and prepares some form of presentation of the material learned. The student must obtain permission of supervisor and complete an independent study form available from the Office of the Registrar and Academic Advising or its Web site.

315 Principles of Bioinformatics

Students apply computational techniques and tools to the analysis of biological data. From mining large genetic sequence databases to simulating population dynamics, computer programming is rapidly becoming essential to the study of a broad range of biological systems. This course introduces computer programming to biologists and allows for the creative application of this skill to an array of biological questions, with an emphasis on advanced genetics topics. Prerequisite: BIO 233.

341 Advanced Cell Biology

The cell is the fundamental unit of life, capable of growth, motility, signal transduction, and functional specialization. Students study features common to cells: their macromolecular components, metabolism, membrane transport, motility, signal mechanisms, and intracellular trafficking, seeing how these are elaborated in cells with particular specializations. Research techniques suitable for cell biology are emphasized. Students attend lectures plus one three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisites: BIO 227 and BIO 233, or BIO 125 and BIO 233, or permission of instructor. Counts toward neuroscience concentration.

348 Research in Electron Microscopy (off-campus)

This course introduces students to intensive research at St. Olaf and the Boulder Laboratory for 3-D Electron Microscopy of Cells at the University of Colorado. In Boulder, students prepare samples for electron microscopy and immuno-gold Electron Microscopy, capture EM-images, and generate 3-D Tomograms. At St. Olaf students generate 3-D computer models of their datasets. Prerequisite: three courses in biology or consent of instructor. Offered occasionally during Interim.

Biology/Environmental Studies 350: Biogeochemistry: Theory and Application

The study of global change and human environmental impacts requires students to link concepts from biology, chemistry, and physics. Students investigate these links by exploring current theories in biogeochemistry, with an emphasis on understanding the feedback between physical and ecological processes and the coupling of multiple element cycles. Laboratory activities focus on a practical exploration of the methods biogeochemists use, including experience with a variety of instruments. Prerequisite: Any level II biology, chemistry, or physics course or permission of instructor.

363 Limnology

Limnology is the study of inland waters and includes their physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. The course focuses on biotic processes and interactions set within the abiotic habitat of lakes and streams. Students examine current management problems facing freshwater environments by focusing on human-induced changes to aquatic habitats and their biotic consequences. Investigative laboratories introduce students to aquatic habitats and biological processes within them. Prerequisites: BIO 261, or permission of instructor.

364 Molecular Biology

Molecular biology techniques are bringing about a revolution in understanding living organisms. Students study the structure and function of macromolecules, methods currently used to clone and analyze genes, and new insights into basic biological processes which these methods provide. The course uses lecture and discussion topics with one project-oriented three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisite: BIO 233.

371 Field Ecology

This course focuses on learning modern field and laboratory methods to test ecological hypotheses. Students work on group and individual projects to collect and analyze data and give oral and written presentations on projects. Class periods focus on discussion of primary literature and project results. Class trips include visits to local natural areas. Students attend lecture/discussion plus one four-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisite: BIO 261. Counts toward environmental studies major (natural science track).

372 Developmental Biology

The last decade has unveiled the mechanism by which a single cell gives rise to an embryo rich in pattern and cellular diversity. This course traces the use of surgical, genetic, and molecular techniques as they have uncovered the developmental blueprints encoding the universal body plan fundamental to all metazoan life. Students attend lectures plus one three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisite: BIO 233. Counts toward neuroscience concentration.

375 Advanced Supplemental Research (0.25)

Students work on special projects during one afternoon of laboratory per week. Each student must have the sponsorship of a faculty member. This course does not count toward the biology major. P/N only. Offered each semester. May be repeated if topic is different.

382 Immunology

Immunology focuses on the structure, development and function of the immune system. The course explores the molecular and cellular basis of the immune responses. The application of immunological principles to allergy, autoimmunity, AIDS, transplantation, and cancer are included. Students attend lectures plus a two-hour discussion per week. Prerequisite: BIO 227 and BIO 233, or BIO 125 and BIO 233.

383 Evolutionary Biology

The idea of evolution forms the foundation for all modern biological thought. This course examines the processes of evolution in detail (selection, genetic drift, mutation, migration) and studies the methods by which biologists reconstruct the history of life on the planet. Advanced topics are explored through reading and discussion of journal articles. The social and historical context of evolutionary theory is discussed. Prerequisite: BIO 233.

385 The Neuron

From tiny ion channels to the basis for learning, neuroscience is a rapidly developing area. Using texts, reviews, and current literature, students examine in depth the fundamental unit of the nervous system, the neuron. The goals are to understand how neurons accomplish their unique functions: electrical signaling, synaptic transmission, and directed growth and remodeling. Prerequisites: BIO 125, or BIO 227 or CH/BI 125, CH/BI 126, and CH/BI 227, and progress toward a major in any of the natural sciences.

386 Animal Behavior

This seminar course approaches the study of animal behavior from the blended viewpoints of evolutionary behavioral ecology and comparative psychology. Mechanisms of learning, cognition, and development, as well as aggression, territoriality, and mating are examined at the organismic and cellular level. A deeper understanding of the neural and environmental determinants of behavior in a wide variety of species helps students better understand themselves and their place in nature. Prerequisite: progress toward a major in any of the natural sciences. Counts toward neuroscience concentration.

391 Selected Topics

Specific topics announced prior to each term are based on student interests and available staff. Class work includes comprehensive review of literature on the specific topic. Class meetings present topics in discussion format. Prerequisites: vary. May be repeated if topics are different. Counts toward environmental studies major (all tracks) and concentration when taught with environmental science focus and approved by chair.

394 Internship

Biology 394 is for students who have completed one internship (BIO 294) and wish to complete a second internship. Students interested in an internship should consult with the Piper Center for Vocation and Career, locate a faculty supervisor, and complete an internship form. Internships do not count toward the biology major requirements.

396 Directed Undergraduate Research: "Topic Description"

This course provides a comprehensive research opportunity, including an introduction to relevant background material, technical instruction, identification of a meaningful project, and data collection. The topic is determined by the faculty member in charge of the course and may relate to his/her research interests. Prerequisite: Determined by individual instructor. Offer based on department decision. May be offered as a 1.00 credit course or .50 credit course.

398 Independent Research

Independent research is offered for students dedicated to an in-depth research experience. In conjunction with a faculty supervisor, a student conceives and performs a research project leading to the writing of a major research paper and a poster presentation. Independent research requires permission of a supervisor, a secondary faculty reader of the paper, and completion of an independent research form available at the Office of the Registrar and Academic Advising or its Web site.